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Enterococcus faecalis treatment

Enterococcal Infection—Treatment and Antibiotic Resistance

Enterococcus faecalis is a gut commensal, which is occasionally found in the mouth and vaginal tract, and does not usually cause clinical problems 2). However, it can spread to other areas of the body and cause life-threatening infections, such as septicemia, endocarditis, or meningitis, in immunocompromised hosts 3) , most often among antibiotic-treated hospitalized patients with perturbed intestinal microbiota 4) What kills Enterococcus faecalis? The treatment of choice for enterococcal endocarditis is ampicillin or penicillin G plus gentamicin. faecalis, other combinations such as ampicillin plus imipenem or ampicillin plus ceftriaxone or ceftotaxime have been recommended Treatment For Enterococcus Faecalis Infections Treatment of enterococcus faecalis infection depends on the severity of condition. The main line treatment is use of antibiotics. Other supportive measures are useful to enhance recovery process Enterococcus faecalis: its role in root canal treatment failure and current concepts in retreatment Enterococcus faecalis is a microorganism commonly detected in asymptomatic, persistent endodontic infections. Its prevalence in such infections ranges from 24% to 77%

Endodontic retreatment, Enterococcus faecalis F actors that may contribute to a persistent periradicular infection after root canal treatment include intraradicular infection, extraradicular infection, foreign body reaction, and cysts containing cholesterol crystals (1). It is generally believed that th Clinical and ultrasound features, results from urinalysis, urine culture, molecular typing and susceptibility testing by minimal inhibitory concentrations determination are described. Oral treatment with nitrofurantoin, the only antimicrobial agent that constituted a viable therapeutic option, had a positive outcome Recommended treatment includes streptogramins (quinupristin/dalfopristin for E. faecium only) and oxazolidinones (linezolid, tedizolid). Daptomycin, oritavancin, tigecycline, and eravacycline have in vitro activity against VRE and may be off-label treatment options

Microbial treatment of water containing the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in microcosm using Artemesia annua plant extract: Hierarchical order of some abiotic factors affecting cell's cultivability. 1 Mobili OB, 2 Lontsi Djimeli C, 3 LM Moungang, 4 Allaahdin O, 5 Tamsa Arfao A, 6 Mabingui J, 7 Bricheux G, *8 Nola M, 9. The following reasons have been proposed to explain why E. faecalis is able to survive intracanal treatment with calcium hydroxide: (a) E. faecalis passively maintains pH homeostasis. This occurs as a result of ions penetrating the cell membrane as well as the cytoplasm's buffering capacity Treatment of vulvovaginal E. faecalis and antibiotic resistance E. faecalis has natural and acquired antibiotic resistance, and can tolerate a range of conditions including changes in temperature and pH. E. faecalis develops biofilms, and can survive for long periods without a food source Enterococcus faecalis treatment. A 33-year-old female asked: I had a cervical swab and the report result is i have a moderate growth of enterococcus faecalis. what is the treatment option? Dr. Matt Wachsman answered. Internal Medicine 36 years experience. Not so usual: a spot for that. It is a common urinary tract infection that is well treated. Enterococcus faecalis - formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system - is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. Like other species in the genus Enterococcus, E. faecalis is found in healthy humans and can be used as a probiotic. The probiotic strains such as Symbioflor1 and EF-2001 are characterized by the lack of specific.

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Some strains of the enterococcus faecalis bacteria are resistant to treatment with antibiotics, so eradicating it from the body is often challenging. Typically, the bacteria is especially hearty and can thrive even in acidic and alkaline environments, both of which are hostile to most bacteria Although Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the 2 most clinically relevant species, E. faecalis accounts for approximately 97% of all IE cases, predominantly impacting the elderly and patients with comorbidities . Enterococcus faecalis, unlike E. faecium, is less frequently multidrug resistant Treatment of experimental endocarditis due to Enterococcus faecalis using once-daily dosing regimen of gentamicin plus simulated profiles of ampicillin in human serum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother . 1996 ; 40 :173-178 What is the best treatment for Enterococcus faecalis? Ampicillin is the drug of choice for monotherapy of susceptible E faecalis infection. For most isolates, the MIC of ampicillin is 2- to 4-fold lower than that of penicillin. For rare strains that are resistant to ampicillin because of beta-lactamase production, ampicillin plus sulbactam may.

A patient with a prosthetic joint infection (PJI) complicated with deep surgical site infection due to vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis.The initial treatment consisted of 10 days with daptomycin plus ampicillin. The hip prosthesis was retained and salvaged with six outpatient sequential doses of oritavancin 1200 mg every seven days without intra-articular irrigation or other. Enterococcus — the large genus of bacteria that cause no harm till you eat them (or enters the body by other means of transmission). Surprisingly, they are commonly found in our bowel and guts. But when they reach any other part of the body, it causes many complications (but majorly by Enterococcus Faecalis).. To depict all the information related to Enterococcus Faecalis, we had listed down. The selection of the best alternative for Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) continuation treatment in the outpatient setting is still challenging. Three databases were searched, reporting antibiotic therapies against E. faecalis IE in or suitable for the outpatient setting. Articles the results of which were identified by species and treatment regimen were included are due to Enterococcus faecalis and less than 5% are caused by Enterococcus faecium [3]. The mortality rate of enterococcal IE has not changed during the last three decades [9], but resistance to classic treatment options has emerged [10]. High-level aminoglyco-side resistance (HLAR) in the case of E. faecalis endocarditi While there are 17 or more species of Enterococcus, only two are commonly found in humans: E. faecalis and E. faecium. This article focuses on E. faecalis, its associated infections, how it is transmitted, and treatment options. What is Enterococcus faecalis? Until 1984, E. faecalis was known as Streptococcus faecalis

Enterococcus

Treatment of Ampicillin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium

  1. Microbial treatment of water containing the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli in microcosm using Artemesia annua plant extract: Hierarchical order of some abiotic factors affecting cell's cultivability. 1 Mobili OB, 2 Lontsi Djimeli C, 3 LM Moungang, 4 Allaahdin O, 5 Tamsa Arfao A, 6 Mabingui J, 7 Bricheux G, *8 Nola M, 9.
  2. Enterococcus faecalis: Properties, Pathogenesis, Lab Diagnosis. Enterococci are catalase negative, gram-positive cocci in chains. Initially grouped under group D Streptococcus, they are reclassified later as a separate genus Enterococcus under a family; Enterococcaceae. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are the two most common.
  3. Enterococcus faecalis (also called E. faecalis) is one of the most common species of Enterococci and is the leading cause of enterococcal infections. One course of treatment involves combining.
  4. Daptomycin: Daptomycin is a bactericidal cyclic lipopeptide that is indicated for the treatment of vancomycin-susceptible E faecalis-complicated SSSIs. 5,21 Although it is not approved for the treatment of E faecium infections and VRE, daptomycin is commonly used in clinical practice to treat enterococcal infections, and retrospective studies.
  5. Overall, the researchers concluded that, In cases of [Enterococcus-related bacteremia], early CVC removal within 3 days of bacteremia is associated with a favorable outcome in the CLABSI without [mucosal barrier injury/catheter-related bloodstream infections] group compared to the non-CLABSI group.Reference. Khalil M, Chaftari AM, Fares J, et al
  6. Many Enterococcus faecalis strains display tolerance or resistance to many antibiotics, but genes that contribute to the resistance cannot be specified. The multiresistant E. faecalis V583, for which the complete genome sequence is available, survives and grows in media containing relatively high levels of chloramphenicol. No specific genes coding for chloramphenicol resistance has been.
  7. Enterococcus faecalis, endodontic treatment, root canal infections, virulence factors. INTRODUCTION . For many years species were believed to be harmless to humans and Enterococcus considered unimportant medically. However, more recently species have Enterococcus become one of the most common nosocomial pathogens, with patients having a hig

Enterococcal Infections Treatment & Management: Medical

  1. Enterococcus faecalis is a microorganism related to different disease including endodontic infections. Due to its presence in the root canals after completing an endodontic treatment, its is related to the faulures of these tratments
  2. g, but tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions
  3. Name site: Enterococcus faecalis Bakterien. Ursprünglich war diese Bakterien mit dem Streptococcus assoziiert. Bildnachweis: Janice Haney Carr, CDC / Pete Wardell. Enterococcus Ist eine Art von Bakterien, die typischerweise im Darm und Darm vorhanden ist. In einigen Fällen kann dieses Bakterium auch im Mund oder Vaginaltrakt gefunden werden
  4. (2020). Treatment of Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis with penicillin G plus ceftriaxone. Infectious Diseases: Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 135-138

Guidance on Treatment of Enterococcal Infections - Summit

Enterococcus faecalis. It was the only possible member of the Streptococcaceae family that ferments Mannitol. All additional biochemical tests confirmed the identification of the unknown and no problems were encountered. Enterococcus faecalis is a gram positive bacterium that inhabits the gastrointestinal tracts of humans or other mammals Enterococcus faecalis readily colonizes the entire gastrointestinal tract and forms biofilms in a germ-free mouse model Aaron M.T. Barnes, Jennifer L. Dale, Yuqing Chen, Dawn A. Manias, Kerryl E. Greenwood Quaintance, Melissa K. Karau, Purna C. Kashyap , Robin Patel , Carol L. Wells, Gary M. Dunn Present study showed that the ace genes do not seem to be necessary nor sufficient for the production of biofilm in Enterococcus faecalis but the presence of asa1, efaA, esp, and ebpR correlates with increased biofilm formation of dental root canal isolates [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] . Enterococcaceae genus Enterococcus species Enterococcus faecalis (Andrewes and Horder 1906) Schleifer and Kilpper. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most prevalent community-acquired and hospital-acquired infections. It has been indicated that UTI is caused by various pathogenic microorganisms, among which the majority are Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus [].UTI mainly occurs in women of childbearing age [], elders.

Enterococcus faecalis: Infections, transmission, and treatmen

  1. Enterococcus faecalis is the most common human pathogen, but Enterococcus faecium has become increasingly prevalent in hospital-acquired infections. All the other enterococcal species together constitute less than 5% of enterococcal infections (2-4). Successful treatment of Enterococcus faecalis prosthetic valve endocarditis with.
  2. Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of enterococcus faecalis urinary tract infection. Follow the links to read common uses, side effects, dosage details and.
  3. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Treatment Guidance Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) has emerged as an important pathogen causing nosocomial infections and vancomycin resistance has been shown to be a principal predictor of mortality with regard to enterococcal bacteremia. While treatment options for VRE bacteremia are limited, linezolid i
  4. Enterococcus faecalis can also enter the body through wounds and by infecting catheters and other surgical implements. The most common way that it is able to enter these sites is due to improper hygiene; because it lives in the intestines, Enterococcus faecalis can be found in fecal matter. As a result it can infect the skin and gain access to.
  5. The most common is E. faecalis Enterococci are distantly related to other streptococci and have been moved into the genus Enterococcus ; the most commonly isolated is E. (S.) faecalis (figure 9). As the name implies enterococci are found in the gut flora where they are usually harmless commensals and infection often follows from fecal.
  6. oglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with Enterococcus faecalis infective.

Treatment and cure for enterococcus faecalis infection Enterococcus faecalis of the eyes of newborns Morganella morganii enterococcus faecalis Questions Answered By Dr. P. T. Patil. Have stomach pain, fever and loose stool. On omniprzole and ciplox. Any... Have had cyst removed from lips and noticed rigidness.. Positive cultures for Enterococcus faecalis from the perianal area and the stools confirmed the diagnosis of perianal dermatitis caused by an uncommon microorganism. Therapy with systematic oral cefuroxime and topical mupirocin cream led to a resolution of the symptoms and the itchy rash by day 4. 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms in the.

antibiotics Review Enterococcus faecalis Endocarditis and Outpatient Treatment: A Systematic Review of Current Alternatives Laura Herrera-Hidalgo 1, Arístides de Alarcón 2, Luis E. López-Cortes 3, Rafael Luque-Márquez 2, Luis F. López-Cortes 2, Alicia Gutiérrez-Valencia 2,4,* and María V. Gil-Navarro 1,y 1 Unidad de Gestión Clinica de Farmacia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío. Treatment of High-Level Gentamicin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Endocarditis with Daptomycin plus Ceftaroline George Sakoulas,a Poochit Nonejuie,b Victor Nizet,a Joseph Pogliano,b Nancy Crum-Cianflone,c Fadi Haddad Figure 9: Test Group 1: Enterococcus faecalis + 5% sodium hypochlorite Figure 10: Test Group 2: Enterococcus faecalis + apple cider vinegar Figure 11: Test Group 1: Candida albicans + 5% sodium hypochlorite medicament in root canal treatment. Further studies need to be done on the bioavailability of apple cider vinegar on prolonged exposure in. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) in Healthcare Settings. Enterococci are bacteria (germs) that are normally present in the human intestines and in the female genital tract, and are often found in the environment, like in soil and water. These bacteria can cause infections. Enterococci bacteria are constantly finding new ways to avoid the.

Health care associated infections

This power point details the bacteria E. faecalis. It focuses on the major diseases it can cause as well as laboratory diagnosis. The information contained.. Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive, gamma-hemolytic or non-hemolytic bacterium in the genus Enterococcus. It can be commensal (innocuous, coexisting organism) in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals, but it may also be pathogenic, causing diseases such as neonatal meningitis or endocarditis.. Vancomycin-resistant E. faecium is often referred to as VRE Klibi N, Ben Slama K, Sáenz Y, et al. Detection of virulence factors in high-level gentamicin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates from a Tunisian hospital. Can J. This study sought to understand the cell surface characteristics, viability and biofilm-forming potential of Enterococcus faecalis cells sequentially exposed to EDTA and calcium hydroxide, as in endodontic treatment. Bacterial cells exposed to EDTA and calcium hydroxide were assayed for cell viability, membrane integrity, cell surface hydrophobicity and surface charge, while alteration in the. Suggest treatment for growth of enterococcus faecalis . MD. Hi. Am 34 years old and trying to get pregnant. I recently had a swab test and it revealed growth of enterococcus faecalis. So the doctor has suggested levoflaxacin antibiotic to me for 5 days. Since am..

faecalis, E. casseliflavus, E. gallinarum, or other Enterococcus. Other Enterococcus is used for clones that were morphologically Enterococcus but did not contain any of the sequences used for PCR identification. Patients to the left of the dotted line are in the control cohort and to the right are in the daptomycin-treated cohort Strengths and limitations of the study. This is the first randomised controlled trial designed to assess whether the probiotic treatment Enterococcus faecalis has an effect in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (previous studies using E. faecalis were predominantly animal studies).. In addition, this study examines the effects of an open-label placebo treatment on symptoms of allergic. Four E. faecalis isolates were tested: 2 obtained during the initial episode of bacteremia (isolates 1 and 2 in figure 1), 1 isolate obtained just prior to the start of treatment with daptomycin (isolate 3 in figure 1), and 1 isolate obtained during the patient's relapse while she was receiving treatment with daptomycin (isolate 4 in figure 1) We report a preterm neonate with persistent HLAR Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia from day of life 9 to 17 despite treatment with ampicillin and vancomycin. On day of life 17, antibiotic treatment was switched to ampicillin and cefotaxime, with subsequent clearance of blood cultures on day of life 20 Ceftriaxone administered as once-daily high-dose short infusion combined with ampicillin has been proposed for the treatment Enterococcus faecalis infectious endocarditis in outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy programs (OPAT) Herrera-Hidalgo et al (2020)

Alternative treatments for enterococcus faecalis Answers

S+ synergistic with cell wall antibiotics. U sensitive for UTI only (non systemic infection) X1 no data. X2 active in vitro, but not used clinically. X3 active in vitro, but not clinically effective for Group A strep pharyngitis or infections due to E. faecalis. X4 active in vitro, but not clinically effective for strep pneumonia Enterococcus faecalis, a facultative gram-positive bacterium, has been considered one of the most resistant species in the oral cavity and one possible cause of post-treatment disease after root canal treatment. Several studies have reported their low susceptibility to irrigant solutions (Gomes et al. 2001 E. faecalis in post-treatment apical periodontitis: Post-treatment apical periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of apical tissues that persists or develops after endodontic treatment as a consequence of persistent or secondary intra-radicular infection. In these cases, E. faecalis has been the most frequently detected species [1-17] (Table 1)

E. faecalis handled by extended antibiotic treatment success-fully continued into lifelong suppressive antibiotic treatment [5]. Combined with the new evidence showing an IE prevalence of up to 26% in E. faecalis. bacteremia, we propose that TTE/TEE is performed in patients with. E. faecalis. bacteremia unless there is a specific reason not to. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium reveals a direct association between absence of CRISPRs system and acquisition of Vancomycin-resistance genes in E. faecium. No conflict of interest 2. Background • The success of E. faecium and E. faecalis as multidrug-resistant nosocomia Enterococcus faecalis. Methodology: Twenty four extracted intact human single rooted teeth were decoronated, and chemo mechanical preparation of the root canal was performed. After sterilization of the samples, they were inoculated with pure culture of E.faecalis and incubated. Then, samples were divided randomly into four groups (n=6) Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most frequently found in teeth with pulp necrosis (lacking previous history of endodontic treatment). It is equally the most frequently isolated species in teeth with infection recurrence (teeth exhibiting evidence of recurrent treatment). To achieve successful endodontic treatment i Introduction. Streptococcal and enterococcal infections in poultry can cause acute septicaemia and chronic infections in affected birds.. There are ~50 recognised members of the Streptococcus genus and 21 of Enterococcus spp. all are commensal organisms, primarily of the gastrointestinal tract and mucosal surfaces, in both animals and humans. Some are also ubiquitous in the environment

Enterococcus faecalis bacteria, infection & treatmen

Enterococcus faecium Background: Enterococci: >Enterococcus faecalis >Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) Enterococcus faecium: Enterococcus: Two species are common commensal organisms in the intestines of humans: E. faecalis (90-95%) and E. faecium (5-10%). Gram-positive cocci that often occur in pairs (diplococci) or short chains. Gram-positive, alpha hemolytic or nonhemolytic bacterium. The aim of this study was to assess changes in antibiotic resistance, epidemiology and outcome among patients with Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE) and to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of ampicillin and gentamicin (A+G) with that of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone (A+C). The study was a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of EFIE patients treated. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the inactivation of three different kinds of bacteria usually present in municipal wastewater treatment effluents (Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) using a coagulation-flocculation-decantation (CFD) process combined with photo-Fenton treatment at pH 5.Different concentrations of Fe 3+ -H 2 O 2 (0.4/25, 5. Enterococcus faecalis, gram-stained1) Enterococcus faecalis cell division2) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: Enterococci can cause urinary tract, wound, and soft tissue infections. They are also associated with bacteremia which can lead to endocarditis in previously damaged cardiac valves. E. faecalis is the most frequent species.

Urinary tract infections

Abstract. Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive bacterium, and Candida albicans, a fungus, occupy overlapping niches as ubiquitous constituents of the gastrointestinal and oral microbiome.Both species also are among the most important and problematic, opportunistic nosocomial pathogens. Surprisingly, these two species antagonize each other's virulence in both nematode infection and in vitro. Enterococcus faecalis, a Gram-positive pathogen, plays a major role in the etiology of persistent periradicular lesions after root canal treatment and is commonly found in a high percentage of.

Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci (VRE): Causes SymptomsPseudomonas Luteola: Symptoms, Susceptibility & TreatmentStreptococcus agalactiae

What antibiotics treat enterococcus UTI

During treatment, 28.6% of patients with HLAR E. faecalis endocarditis and 18.2% of patients with non-HLAR E. faecalis endocarditis died of infection-related causes Effect of antimicrobial treatments in secondary infections. Antimicrobial treatment of the retreated root canals caused a significant reduction of bacterial load in all three groups, resulting in a 99.9% kill of E. faecalis (Table 1).NaOCl irrigation achieved culture-negative root canals in 55% of the cases, whereas in teeth treated with PDT no specimen was culture-negative Alcaligenes faecalis (A faecalis) has shown a decreasing susceptibility to commonly used antibiotics with an emergence of extensively drug-resistant A faecalis infections, according to study results published in BMC Infectious Diseases.. This 6-year retrospective analysis between 2014 and 2019 included 61 adult patients with A faecalis infections. Of the 61 patients, 37 (60.7%) had a history.

Enterococcus Faecalis Infection: Causes, Symptoms & Treatmen

Enterococcus faecalis (Ef) is one of the major pathogens involved in hospital‐acquired infections.It can cause nosocomial bacteremia, surgical wound infection, and urinary tract infection. It is important to mention here that Ef is developing resistance against many commonly occurring antibiotics. The occurrence of multidrug resistance (MDR) and extensive‐drug resistance (XDR) is now. The Enterococcus faecalis SigV Protein Is an Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor Contributing to Survival following Heat, Acid, and Ethanol Treatments Authors : Abdellah Benachour [email protected] , Cécile Muller , Monika Dabrowski-Coton , Yoann Le Breton , Jean-Christophe Giard , Alain Rincé , Yanick Auffray , and Axel Hartk lems in treating Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ampicillin plus ceftriaxone for treating endocarditis due to E. faecalis with and without HLAR. Design: Observational, open-label, nonrandomized, multicenter clinical trial. Setting: 13 centers in Spain Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic specie commonly studied in endodontics due to its high frequency in cases of failed root canal treatment [19, 29].According to the literature, they can survive as a mono-infection of root canal [], besides having resistance to chemical-mechanical preparation [] and intracanal medication [32, 33] Enterococci can become resistant to vancomycin by acquisition of genetic information from another organism. Most commonly, this resistance is seen in E. faecium and E. faecalis, but also has been recognized in E. raffinosus, E. avium, E. durans, and several other enterococcal species. Several genes, including van A, van B, van C, van D, and van.

Lichen Planus | Dermatology | JAMA Dermatology | The JAMAEnterococcus Faecium Probiotic

E. faecalis supernatant and heat-killed E. faecalis treatments. An overnight culture of E. faecalis was diluted in 20 ml DMEM-BHI medium to give a starting inoculum of 10 2 CFU/ml, as previously described. After incubation for an additional 24 h at 37°C and 5% CO 2 gg for 5 min. This step was repeated to ensure minimal carryover of the culture. Effect of subchronic dexamethasone (Dex) or imipramine (Imi) treatment or chronic Enterococcus faecalis 2001 (EF-2001) treatment on stool consistency (a, e), rectal bleeding (b, f), colon length (c, g), and immobility time (d, h) in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated mice. Effect of EF-2001 and Dex on histopathologic changes in colon tissue. Common name i. -. Synonym i. Streptococcus faecalis. Other names i. ›Enterococcus proteiformis Thiercelin and Jouhaud 1903. ›Enterocoque Thiercelin 1902. ›Micrococcus ovalis Escherich 1886. ›Micrococcus zymogenes MacCallum and Hastings 1899